Maison DesChamps, 23, said he had attempted the stunt on Tuesday in order to raise money for a woman hoping to avoid an abortion.
A live video posted on his Instagram page showed DesChamps leap from a van and begin to climb the 40-storey building – which is almost 600ft tall and houses the Israeli consulate – without safety ropes.
Later, another video showed him being detained and handcuffed by officers.
In a statement, Chicago Police Department said: “Officers were able to place the offender into custody without incident.
“No injuries were reported and charges are pending, No other information is available.”
Mr Des Champs has frequently scaled large skyscrapers in order to help raise funds for the anti-abortion movement, attracting a mixture of responses in comments on his social media posts.
The climb of the Accenture tower on Tuesday was in order to help a woman named Sierra, who is 17 weeks into a surprise pregnancy.
According to a press release on the Let Them Live website, Sierra had been “abandoned” by the father of her child and in financial difficulty.
“Today, I am not just free-climbing a building, but a mountain of hope for a young mother named Sierra, teetering on the brink of abortion,” Mr DesChamps said in an accompanying statement.
“Let’s rally together, as we have done for so many pregnant women, and forge a path for Sierra to traverse from despair to hope, from financial crisis to stability.”
Mr DesChamps’ posts on Instagram, which have documented his other free-solo climbs of buildings including the Salesforce tower in San Francisco, and the Devon Tower in Oklahoma City, receive both support and criticism.
“Please stay in jail and out of women’s issues. We want the right to choose,” one user commented on a video of his arrest in Chicago.